Keratin deficiency nails

Nail (anatomy)
Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see Nail. "Toenail" redirects here. For the construction technique, see Toenailing. NailBlausen 0406 FingerNailAnatomy.pngGorilla-hand.jpgA Monkey's fingernailsDetailsSystemIntegumentary systemIdentifiersLatinunguisMeSHD009262TAA16.0.01.001THH3. terminology

A nail is a horn-like keratinous envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates. Nails evolved from claws found in other animals. Fingernails and toenails are made of a tough protective protein called alpha-keratin which is found in the hooves, hair, claws and horns of vertebrates.[1]


.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{display:flex;flex-direction:column}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow{display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{margin:1px;float:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader{clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100%}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption{text-align:left;background-color:transparent}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center{text-align:center}@media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow{justify-content:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption{text-align:center}}Human nailsHuman fingers and nailsFingernailsHuman toes and nailsToenails A. Nail plate; B. lunula; C. root; D. sinus; E. matrix; F. nail bed; G. hyponychium; H. free margin. The bed part of the nail after its removal

The nail consists of the nail plate, the nail matrix and the nail bed below it, and the grooves surrounding it.[2]

Parts of the nail

The matrix, sometimes called[3] the matrix unguis, keratogenous membrane, nail matrix, or onychostroma, is the tissue (or germinal matrix) which the nail protects.[4] It is the part of the nail bed that is beneath the nail and contains nerves, lymph and blood vessels.[5] The matrix produces cells that become the nail plate. The width and thickness of the nail plate is determined by the size, length, and thickness of the matrix, while the shape of the fingertip itself shows if the nail plate is flat, arched, or hooked.[6] The matrix will continue to produce cells as long as it receives nutrition and remains in a healthy condition.[7] As new nail plate cells are made, they push older nail plate cells forward; and in this way older cells become compressed, flat, and translucent. This makes the capillaries in the nail bed below visible, resulting in a pink color.[8]

The lunula ("small moon") is the visible part of the matrix, the whitish crescent-shaped base of the visible nail.[9] The lunula can best be seen in the thumb and may not be visible in the little finger.

The nail bed is the skin beneath the nail plate.[9] Like all skin, it is made of two types of tissues: the deeper dermis, the living tissue which includes capillaries and glands,[10] and the epidermis, the layer just beneath the nail plate, which moves toward the finger tip with the plate. The epidermis is attached to the dermis by tiny longitudinal "grooves"[6] called matrix crests (cristae matricis unguis).[4][10] In old age, the nail plate becomes thinner, and these grooves become more visible.[6]

The nail sinus (sinus unguis) is where the nail root is;[4] i.e. the base of the nail underneath the skin. It originates from the actively growing tissue below, the matrix.[5]

The nail plate (corpus unguis)[4] is the hard part of the nail, made of translucent keratin protein. Several layers of dead, compacted cells cause the nail to be strong but flexible.[6] Its (transverse) shape is determined by the form of the underlying bone.[6] In common usage, the word nail often refers to this part only.

The free margin (margo liber) or distal edge is the anterior margin of the nail plate corresponding to the abrasive or cutting edge of the nail.[4] The hyponychium (informally known as the "quick")[11] is the epithelium located beneath the nail plate at the junction between the free edge and the skin of the fingertip. It forms a seal that protects the nail bed.[5] The onychodermal band is the seal between the nail plate and the hyponychium. It is just under the free edge, in that portion of the nail where the nail bed ends and can be recognized in fair-skinned people by its glassy, greyish colour. It is not visible in some individuals while it is highly prominent on others.[6]


Together, the eponychium and the cuticle form a protective seal. The cuticle is the semi-circular layer of almost invisible dead skin cells that "ride out on" and cover the back of the visible nail plate while the eponychium is the fold of skin cells that produces the cuticle. They are continuous, and some references view them as one entity; in this classification, the names eponychium, cuticle, and perionychium are synonymous.[12] It is the cuticle (nonliving part) that is removed during a manicure, but the eponychium (living part) should not be touched due to risk of infection.[8] The eponychium is a small band of living cells (epithelium) that extends from the posterior nail wall onto the base of the nail.[4] The eponychium is the end of the proximal fold that folds back upon itself to shed an epidermal layer of skin onto the newly formed nail plate. The perionyx is the projecting edge of the eponychium covering the proximal strip of the lunula.[4]

The nail wall (vallum unguis) is the cutaneous fold overlapping the sides and proximal end of the nail. The lateral margin (margo lateralis) lies beneath the nail wall on the sides of the nail, and the nail groove or fold (sulcus matricis unguis) are the cutaneous slits into which the lateral margins are embedded.[4]


The paronychium is the soft tissue border around the nail,[13] and paronychia is an infection in this area.


A healthy fingernail has the function of protecting the distal phalanx, the fingertip, and the surrounding soft tissues from injuries. It also serves to enhance precise delicate movements of the distal digits through counter-pressure exerted on the pulp of the finger.[2] The nail then acts as a counter-force when the end of the finger touches an object, thereby enhancing the sensitivity of the fingertip,[14] although the nail itself has no nerve endings. Finally, the nail functions as a tool enabling, for instance, a so-called "extended precision grip" (e.g. pulling out a splinter in one's finger), and certain cutting or scraping actions.


The growing part of the nail is under the skin at the nail's proximal end under the epidermis, which is the only living part of a nail.

In mammals, the growth rate of nails is related to the length of the terminal phalanges (outermost finger bones). Thus, in humans, the nail of the index finger grows faster than that of the little finger; and fingernails grow up to four times faster than toenails.[15]

In humans, nails grow at an average rate of 3mm (0.12in) a month.[16][17] Fingernails require three to six months to regrow completely, and toenails require twelve to eighteen months. Actual growth rate is dependent upon age, sex, season, exercise level, diet, and hereditary factors.[18] The longest female nails known ever to have existed measured a total of 601.9cm, an average of 60.19cm (23.7inches) for each fingernail.[19] Contrary to popular belief, nails do not continue to grow after death; the skin dehydrates and tightens, making the nails (and hair) appear to grow.[20]


The nail is often considered an impermeable barrier, but this is not true. In fact, it is much more permeable than the skin,[21] and the composition of the nail includes 712% water. This permeability has implications for penetration by harmful and medicinal substances; in particular cosmetics applied to the nails can pose a risk. Water can penetrate the nail as can many other substances including paraquat, a fast acting herbicide that is harmful to humans, urea which is often an ingredient in creams and lotions meant for use on hands and fingers, and several fungicidal agents such as salicylic acid, miconazole branded Monistat, natamycin; and sodium hypochlorite which is the active ingredient in common household bleach (but usually only in 23% concentration).[21]

Clinical significance

Main article: Nail disease Thumbnail of the right hand with cuticle (left) and hangnail (top)

Healthcare and pre-hospital-care providers (EMTs or paramedics) often use the fingernail beds as a cursory indicator of distal tissue perfusion of individuals who may be dehydrated or in shock.[22] However, this test is not considered reliable in adults.[23] This is known as the CRT or blanch test. The fingernail bed is briefly depressed to turn the nail-bed white. When the pressure is released, the normal pink colour should be restored within a second or two. Delayed return to pink color can be an indicator of certain shock states such as hypovolemia.[24][25]

Nail growth record can show the history of recent health and physiological imbalances, and has been used as a diagnostic tool since ancient times.[26] Deep, horizontally transverse grooves known as "Beau's lines" may form across the nails (horizontal, not along the nail from cuticle to tip). These lines are usually a natural consequence of aging, although they may result from disease. Discoloration, thinning, thickening, brittleness, splitting, grooves, Mees' lines, small white spots, receded lunula, clubbing (convex), flatness, and spooning (concave) can indicate illness in other areas of the body, nutrient deficiencies, drug reaction or poisoning, or merely local injury.

Nails can also become thickened (onychogryphosis), loosened (onycholysis), infected with fungus (onychomycosis), or degenerate (onychodystrophy). A common nail disorder is an ingrowing toenail (onychocryptosis).

DNA profiling is a technique employed by forensic scientists on hair, fingernails, toenails, etc.

Health and care

A set of professional nail care tools

The best way to care for nails is to trim them regularly. Filing is also recommended, as to keep nails from becoming too rough and to remove any small bumps or ridges that may cause the nail to get tangled up in materials such as cloth.[27]

Bluish or purple fingernail beds may be a symptom of peripheral cyanosis, which indicates oxygen deprivation.

Nails can dry out, just like skin. They can also peel, break, and be infected. Toe infections, for instance, can be caused or exacerbated by dirty socks, specific types of aggressive exercise (long-distance running), tight footwear, and walking unprotected in an unclean environment. Common organisms causing nail infections include yeasts and molds (particularly dermatophytes).[28]

Nail tools used by different people may transmit infections. Standard hygiene and sanitation procedures avoid transmission. In some cases, gel and cream cuticle removers can be used instead of cuticle scissors.

Nail disease can be very subtle and should be evaluated by a dermatologist with a focus in this particular area of medicine. However, most times it is a nail technician who will note a subtle change in nail disease.

Inherited accessory nail of the fifth toe occurs where the toenail of the smallest toe is separated, forming a smaller "sixth toenail" in the outer corner of the nail. Like any other nail, it can be cut using a nail clipper.

Effect of nutrition

Vitamin A is an essential micro-nutrient for vision, reproduction, cell and tissue differentiation, and immune function. Vitamin D and calcium work together in cases of maintaining homeostasis, creating muscle contraction, transmission of nerve pulses, blood clotting, and membrane structure. A lack of vitamin A, vitamin D, or calcium can cause dryness and brittleness.

Insufficient vitamin B12 can lead to excessive dryness, darkened nails, and rounded or curved nail ends. Insufficient intake of both vitamin A and B results in fragile nails with horizontal and vertical ridges. Some over-the-counter vitamin supplements such as certain multivitamins and biotin may help in growth of strong nails, although this is quite subjective.[29]

Protein is a building material for new nails; therefore, low dietary protein intake may cause anemia and the resultant reduced hemoglobin in the blood filling the capillaries of the nail bed reflects varying amounts of light incident on the nail matrix resulting in lighter shades of pink ultimately resulting in white nail beds when the hemoglobin is very low. When hemoglobin is close to 15 or 16 grams, most of the spectrum of light is absorbed and only the pink color is reflected back and the nails look pink.

Essential fatty acids play a large role in healthy skin as well as nails. Splitting and flaking of nails may be due to a lack of linoleic acid.

Iron-deficiency anemia can lead to a pale color along with a thin, brittle, ridged texture. Iron deficiency in general may cause the nails to become flat or concave, rather than convex. Heme iron is absorbed fairly easily in comparison to non-heme iron; however, both types provide the necessary bodily functions.[30]

Society and culture


Main articles: manicure and pedicure Toenails painted magenta

Manicures (for the hands) and pedicures (for the feet) are health and cosmetic procedures to groom, trim, and paint the nails and manage calluses. They require various tools such as cuticle scissors, nail scissors, nail clippers, and nail files. Artificial nails can also be fixed onto real nails for cosmetic purposes.

A person whose occupation is to cut, shape and care for nails as well as to apply overlays such as acrylic and UV gel is sometimes called a nail technician. The place where a nail technician works may be a nail salon or nail shop or nail bar.

Nail art

Painting the nails with coloured nail polish (also called nail lacquer and nail varnish) to improve the appearance is a common practice dating back to at least 3000 B.C. With the rise of smartphones, some analysts have noted a trend of the nelfie (nail selfie), wherein people share their nail art online.[31]

Length records

Guinness World Records began tracking record fingernail lengths in 1955, when a Chinese priest was listed as having fingernails 1foot 10.75inches (57.79cm) long.

The current record-holder for men, according to Guinness, is Shridhar Chillal from India who set the record in 1998 with a total of 20feet 2.25inches (615.32cm) of nails on his left hand. His longest nail, on his thumb, was 4feet 9.6inches (146.3cm) long.

The record-holder for women is Lee Redmond of the U.S., who set the record in 2001 and as of 2008 had nails with a total length on both hands of 28 feet (850cm), with the longest nail on her right thumb at 2feet 11inches (89cm).[32]

Evolution in primates

Nails are a distinguishing feature of the primate order.

The nail is an unguis, meaning a keratin structure at the end of a digit. Other examples of ungues include the claw, hoof and talon. The nails of primates and the hooves of running mammals evolved from the claws of earlier animals.[33]

In contrast to nails, claws are typically curved ventrally (downwards in animals) and compressed sideways. They serve a multitude of functionsincluding climbing, digging, and fightingand have undergone numerous adaptive changes in different animal taxa. Claws are pointed at their ends and are composed of two layers: a thick, deep layer and a superficial, hardened layer which serves a protective function. The underlying bone is a virtual mold of the overlying horny structure and therefore has the same shape as the claw or nail. Compared to claws, nails are flat, less curved, and do not extend far beyond the tip of the digits. The ends of the nails usually consist only of the "superficial", hardened layer and are not pointed like claws.[33]

With only a few exceptions, primates retain plesiomorphic (original, "primitive") hands with five digits, each equipped with either a nail or a claw. For example, nearly all living strepsirrhine primates have nails on all digits except the second toe which is equipped with a grooming claw. Tarsiers have a grooming claw on second and third toes. Less commonly known, a grooming claw is also found on the second pedal digit of owl monkeys (Aotus), titis (Callicebus), and possibly other New World monkeys.[34] The needle-clawed bushbaby (Euoticus) has keeled nails (the thumb and the first and the second toes have claws) featuring a central ridge that ends in a needle-like tip. In tree shrews, all digits have claws and, unlike most primates, the digits of their feet are positioned close together, and therefore, the thumb cannot be brought into opposition (another usually distinguishing feature of primates).[33]

A study of the fingertip morphology of four small-bodied New World monkey species indicated a correlation between increasing small-branch foraging and:

expanded apical pads (fingertips), developed epidermal ridges (fingerprints), broadened distal parts of distal phalanges (fingertip bones), and reduced flexor and extensor tubercles (attachments areas for finger muscles on bones).

This suggests that whereas claws are useful on large-diameter branches, wide fingertips with nails and epidermal ridges were required for habitual locomotion on small-diameter branches. It also indicates keel-shaped nails of Callitrichines (a family of New World monkeys) is a derived postural adaptation rather than retained ancestral condition.[35]

See also

This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nails.
  • List of cutaneous conditions
  • Nail disease
  • Nail fetish
  • Onychogryphosis, overgrown, claw-like nails


^ Wang, Bin (2016). "Keratin: Structure, mechanical properties, occurrence in biological organisms, and efforts at bioinspiration" (PDF). Progress in Materials Science. 76: 229318. doi:10.1016/ cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em} ^ a b Onumah, Neh; Scher, Richard K (May 2009). "Nail Surgery". eMedicine. Retrieved 10 March 2010. ^ "Nail matrix". Biology Online. 2005. Retrieved 10 March 2010. ^ a b c d e f g h Feneis, Heinz (2000). Pocket Atlas of Human Anatomy (4th ed.). Thieme. pp.39295. ISBN3-13-511204-7. ^ a b c "Glossary of Nail Technology Terminology". 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2010. ^ a b c d e f "Understanding Your Natural Nails". 2000. Retrieved March 10, 2010. ^ D. Schoon, Dougles (2005). Nail Structure and Products Chemistry. Milady. p.6. ^ a b Lellipop (August 2006). "Anatomy of the nail". Salon Geek. Retrieved 10 March 2010. ^ a b "Nail Anatomy". Nail Doctors. 2005. Retrieved March 10, 2010. ^ a b "Glossary of Nail Conditions". The Achilles Foot Health Centre. ^ Crouch, James Ensign (1985). Functional human anatomy. Lea & Febiger. p.80. ISBN9780812109306. ^ Elsevier, Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, Elsevier. ^ Jordan, Christopher; Mirzabeigi, Edwin (2000-04-01). Atlas of orthopaedic surgical exposures. Thieme. p.101. ISBN0-86577-776-4. ^ Wang, Quincy C; Johnson, Brett A (May 2001). "Fingertip Injuries". American Family Physician. Retrieved 10 March 2010. ^ Cartmill, Matt; Lemelin, Pierre; Schmitt, Daniel (2007). "Primate Gaits and Primate Origins". In Ravosa, Matthew J.; Dagosto, Marian (eds.). Primate Origins: Adaptations and Evolution. pp.40335. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-33507-0_12. ISBN978-0-387-30335-2. ^ Bean, W. B (1980). "Nail growth. Thirty-five years of observation". Archives of Internal Medicine. 140 (1): 736. doi:10.1001/archinte.140.1.73. PMID7352807. ^ ^ Hunter, J. A. A., Savin, J., & Dahl, M. V. (2002). Clinical dermatology. Malden, Mass: Blackwell Science. p. 173. ISBN0-632-05916-8 ^ Glenday, Craig (2013). Guinness World Records 2014. The Jim Pattison Group. p.051. ISBN978-1-908843-15-9. ^ Vreeman, R. C; Carroll, A. E (2007). "Medical myths". BMJ. 335 (7633): 12889. doi:10.1136/bmj.39420.420370.25. PMC2151163. PMID18156231. ^ a b K. A. Walters and G. L. Flynn, Permeability characteristics of the human nail plate, International Journal of Cosmetic Science 5, 23146 (1983) ^ Monterey County EMS Manual. Chapter XI, Patient assessment. ^ Schriger DL, Baraff LJ (Jun 1991). "Capillary refill is it a useful predictor of hypovolemic states?". Ann Emerg Med. 20 (6): 60115. doi:10.1016/S0196-0644(05)82375-3. PMID2039096. ^ MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Capillary nail refill test ^ St. Luke's Hospital. Capillary nail refill test. ^ American Academy of Dermatology Nail Health ^ Cohen, Philip R.; Scher, Richard K. (1992-04-01). "Geriatric nail disorders: Diagnosis and treatment". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 26 (4): 521531. doi:10.1016/0190-9622(92)70075-Q. ISSN0190-9622. ^ Denning, DW; Evans, EG; Kibbler, CC; Richardson, MD; Roberts, MM; Rogers, TR; Warnock, DW; Warren, RE (November 11, 1995). "Fungal nail disease: a guide to good practice (report of a Working Group of the British Society for Medical Mycology)". British Medical Journal. 311 (7015): 127781. doi:10.1136/bmj.311.7015.1277. PMC2551187. PMID7496239. ^ Zempleni, J; R.B. Rucker; D.B. McCormick; J.W. Suttie (2007). Handbook of vitamins (4th ed.). ^ Cashman MW, Sloan SB (2010). "Nutrition and nail disease". Clinics in Dermatology. 28 (4): 42025. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2010.03.037. PMID20620759. ^ Laneri, Raquel (18 April 2017). "Muslim women are showing off their insane nail art in 'nelfies'". NY Post. Retrieved 21 February 2019. ^ "Crash breaks woman's record-length fingernails". NBCNews. December 2009. ^ a b c Ankel-Simons, Friderun (2007). Primate anatomy: an introduction (3rd ed.). pp.34244. ISBN0-12-372576-3. ^ Maiolino, S.; Boyer, D. M.; Rosenberger, A. (2011). "Morphological Correlates of the Grooming Claw in Distal Phalanges of Platyrrhines and Other Primates: A Preliminary Study". The Anatomical Record. 294 (12): 197590. doi:10.1002/ar.21498. PMID22042603. ^ Hamrick, Mark W. (1998). "Functional and adaptive significance of primate pads and claws: Evidence from New World anthropoids". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Wiley-Liss. 106 (2): 11327. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199806)106:23.0.CO;2-R. PMID9637179.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Skin and related structuresSkinEpidermis
  • Stratum corneum
  • Stratum lucidum
  • Stratum granulosum
  • Stratum spinosum
  • Stratum basale
Basement membrane
  • Basal keratinocyte
  • Lamina lucida
  • Lamina densa
  • Papillary
    • Dermal papillae
  • Reticular
Subcutaneous tissue
  • Panniculus/Pannus (Panniculus adiposus
  • Panniculus carnosus)
  • Membranous layer
  • Loose connective tissue
  • Superficial fascia
AdnexaSkin glands
  • Sweat glands: Apocrine sweat gland
  • Eccrine sweat gland
  • Sebaceous
HairRoot sheath
  • Outer root sheath
  • Inner root sheath
    • Henle's layer
    • Huxley's layer
Hair shaft
  • Cuticle
  • Cortex
  • Medulla
  • Bulb with matrix cells
  • Hair follicle
  • Arrector pili muscle
Pilosebaceous unit
  • Hair sebaceous gland
  • Nail matrix
  • Nail plate
    • Lunula
  • Eponychium
  • Paronychium
  • Hyponychium
Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
  • BNF: cb11965400d (data)
  • GND: 4210067-7
  • LCCN: sh85089542
  • NDL: 00573517
  • TA98: A16.0.01.001
  • TH: H3.
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keratin deficiency nails
keratin deficiency nails

Keratin disease
Jump to navigation Jump to search Keratin diseaseOther namesKeratinopathySpecialtyDermatology

A keratin disease is a genetic disorder of one of the keratin genes.An example is monilethrix.[1]The first to be identified was epidermolysis bullosa simplex.[2][3]


Examples of keratin disease include:

Name Skin/hair Keratin Epidermolysis bullosa simplex skin KRT5, KRT14 Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis skin KRT1, KRT10 Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens skin KRT2A Palmoplantar keratoderma skin KRT1, KRT9, KRT16 Pachyonychia congenita skin KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT16, KRT17 White sponge nevus skin KRT4, KRT13 Steatocystoma multiplex skin KRT17 Monilethrix hair KRT81, KRT83, KRT86 Meesman juvenile epithelial corneal dystrophy cornea KRT3, KRT12 Familial cirrhosis liver KRT8, KRT18


See also

  • List of cutaneous conditions caused by mutations in keratins


^ Corden LD, McLean WH (December 1996). "Human keratin diseases: hereditary fragility of specific epithelial tissues". Exp. Dermatol. 5 (6): 297307. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0625.1996.tb00133.x. cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em} ^ Smith F (2003). "The molecular genetics of keratin disorders". Am J Clin Dermatol. 4 (5): 34764. doi:10.2165/00128071-200304050-00005. PMID12688839. ^ Irvine AD, McLean WH (May 1999). "Human keratin diseases: the increasing spectrum of disease and subtlety of the phenotype-genotype correlation". Br. J. Dermatol. 140 (5): 81528. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.1999.02810.x. PMID10354017. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Cytoskeletal defectsMicrofilamentsMyofilamentActin
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 11
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy 1AA
  • DFNA20
  • Nemaline myopathy 3
  • Elejalde syndrome
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 1, 8, 10
  • Usher syndrome 1B
  • FreemanSheldon syndrome
  • DFN A3, 4, 11, 17, 22; B2, 30, 37, 48
  • MayHegglin anomaly
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 7, 2
  • Nemaline myopathy 4, 5
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 3
  • Nemaline myopathy 1
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 9
  • Fibrillin
    • Marfan syndrome
    • WeillMarchesani syndrome
  • Filamin
    • FG syndrome 2
    • Boomerang dysplasia
    • Larsen syndrome
    • Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects
  • Keratinopathy (keratosis, keratoderma, hyperkeratosis): KRT1
    • Striate palmoplantar keratoderma 3
    • Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis
    • IHCM
  • KRT2E (Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens)
  • KRT3 (Meesmann juvenile epithelial corneal dystrophy)
  • KRT4 (White sponge nevus)
  • KRT5 (Epidermolysis bullosa simplex)
  • KRT8 (Familial cirrhosis)
  • KRT10 (Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis)
  • KRT12 (Meesmann juvenile epithelial corneal dystrophy)
  • KRT13 (White sponge nevus)
  • KRT14 (Epidermolysis bullosa simplex)
  • KRT17 (Steatocystoma multiplex)
  • KRT18 (Familial cirrhosis)
  • KRT81/KRT83/KRT86 (Monilethrix)
  • NaegeliFranceschettiJadassohn syndrome
  • Reticular pigmented anomaly of the flexures
  • Desmin: Desmin-related myofibrillar myopathy
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy 1I
  • GFAP: Alexander disease
  • Peripherin: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Neurofilament: Parkinson's disease
  • CharcotMarieTooth disease 1F, 2E
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Laminopathy: LMNA
    • Mandibuloacral dysplasia
    • Dunnigan Familial partial lipodystrophy
    • EmeryDreifuss muscular dystrophy 2
    • Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1B
    • CharcotMarieTooth disease 2B1
  • LMNB
    • BarraquerSimons syndrome
  • LEMD3
    • BuschkeOllendorff syndrome
    • Osteopoikilosis
  • LBR
    • PelgerHuet anomaly
    • Hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten skeletal dysplasia
  • CharcotMarieTooth disease 2A
  • Hereditary spastic paraplegia 10
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia
  • Short rib-polydactyly syndrome 3
  • Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia 3
  • Tauopathy
  • Cavernous venous malformation
  • Spectrin: Spinocerebellar ataxia 5
  • Hereditary spherocytosis 2, 3
  • Hereditary elliptocytosis 2, 3

Ankyrin: Long QT syndrome 4

  • Hereditary spherocytosis 1
  • APC
    • Gardner's syndrome
    • Familial adenomatous polyposis
  • plakoglobin (Naxos syndrome)
  • GAN (Giant axonal neuropathy)
  • desmoplakin: Striate palmoplantar keratoderma 2
  • Carvajal syndrome
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 8
  • plectin: Epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy
  • Epidermolysis bullosa simplex of Ogna
  • plakophilin: Skin fragility syndrome
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 9
  • centrosome: PCNT (Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II)
See also: cytoskeletal proteins
  • v
  • t
  • e
Congenital malformations and deformations of integument / skin disease (Q80Q82, 757.0757.3)GenodermatosisCongenital ichthyosis/
  • Ichthyosis vulgaris
  • Congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma: Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis
  • Lamellar ichthyosis
    • Harlequin type ichthyosis
  • Netherton syndrome
  • ZunichKaye syndrome
  • SjogrenLarsson syndrome
  • X-linked ichthyosis
  • Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens
  • Ichthyosis follicularis
  • Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome
  • Ichthyosissclerosing cholangitis syndrome
  • Nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma
  • Ichthyosis linearis circumflexa
  • Ichthyosis hystrix
and related
  • EBS
    • EBS-K
    • EBS-WC
    • EBS-DM
    • EBS-OG
    • EBS-MD
    • EBS-MP
  • JEB
    • JEB-H
    • Mitis
    • Generalized atrophic
    • JEB-PA
  • DEB
    • DDEB
    • RDEB
  • related: Costello syndrome
  • Kindler syndrome
  • Laryngoonychocutaneous syndrome
  • Skin fragility syndrome
Ectodermal dysplasia
  • Naegeli syndrome/Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis
  • HayWells syndrome
  • Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia
  • Focal dermal hypoplasia
  • Ellisvan Creveld syndrome
  • RappHodgkin syndrome/HayWells syndrome
  • EhlersDanlos syndromes
  • Cutis laxa (Gerodermia osteodysplastica)
  • Popliteal pterygium syndrome
  • Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
  • Van Der Woude syndrome
  • diffuse: Diffuse epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma
  • Diffuse nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma
  • Palmoplantar keratoderma of Sybert
  • Meleda disease
  • syndromic
    • connexin
      • BartPumphrey syndrome
      • Clouston's hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia
      • Vohwinkel syndrome
    • Corneodermatoosseous syndrome
    • plakoglobin
      • Naxos syndrome
    • Scleroatrophic syndrome of Huriez
    • Olmsted syndrome
    • Cathepsin C
      • PapillonLefevre syndrome
      • HaimMunk syndrome
    • Camisa disease
    • focal: Focal palmoplantar keratoderma with oral mucosal hyperkeratosis
    • Focal palmoplantar and gingival keratosis
    • HowelEvans syndrome
    • Pachyonychia congenita
      • Pachyonychia congenita type I
      • Pachyonychia congenita type II
    • Striate palmoplantar keratoderma
    • Tyrosinemia type II
  • punctate: Acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa
  • Focal acral hyperkeratosis
  • Keratosis punctata palmaris et plantaris
  • Keratosis punctata of the palmar creases
  • SchopfSchulzPassarge syndrome
  • Porokeratosis plantaris discreta
  • Spiny keratoderma
  • ungrouped: Palmoplantar keratoderma and spastic paraplegia
  • desmoplakin
    • Carvajal syndrome
  • connexin
    • Erythrokeratodermia variabilis
    • HID/KID
  • Meleda disease
  • Keratosis pilaris
  • ATP2A2
    • Darier's disease
  • Dyskeratosis congenita
  • Lelis syndrome
  • Dyskeratosis congenita
  • Keratolytic winter erythema
  • Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans
  • Keratosis linearis with ichthyosis congenita and sclerosing keratoderma syndrome
  • Keratosis pilaris atrophicans faciei
  • Keratosis pilaris
  • cadherin
    • EEM syndrome
  • immune system
    • Hereditary lymphedema
    • Mastocytosis/Urticaria pigmentosa
  • HaileyHailey

see also Template:Congenital malformations and deformations of skin appendages, Template:Phakomatoses, Template:Pigmentation disorders, Template:DNA replication and repair-deficiency disorder

  • Dermoid cyst
  • Encephalocele
  • Nasal glioma
  • PHACE association
  • Sinus pericranii
  • Capillary hemangioma
  • Port-wine stain
    • Nevus flammeus nuchae
  • Aplasia cutis congenita
  • Amniotic band syndrome
  • Branchial cyst
  • Cavernous venous malformation
  • Accessory nail of the fifth toe
  • Bronchogenic cyst
  • Congenital cartilaginous rest of the neck
  • Congenital hypertrophy of the lateral fold of the hallux
  • Congenital lip pit
  • Congenital malformations of the dermatoglyphs
  • Congenital preauricular fistula
  • Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma
  • Cystic lymphatic malformation
  • Median raphe cyst
  • Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy
  • Mongolian spot
  • Nasolacrimal duct cyst
  • Omphalomesenteric duct cyst
  • Poland anomaly
  • Rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma
  • RosenthalKloepfer syndrome
  • Skin dimple
  • Superficial lymphatic malformation
  • Thyroglossal duct cyst
  • Verrucous vascular malformation
  • Birthmark
  • v
  • t
  • e
Congenital malformations and deformations of skin appendages (Q84, 757.4757.5)Nail disease
  • Anonychia
  • Leukonychia
  • Pachyonychia congenita/Onychauxis
  • Koilonychia
Hair disease
  • hypotrichosis/abnormalities: keratin disease
    • Monilethrix
  • IBIDS syndrome
  • Sabinas brittle hair syndrome
  • Pili annulati
  • Pili torti
  • Uncombable hair syndrome
  • Bjornstad syndrome
  • Giant axonal neuropathy with curly hair
  • hypertrichosis: ZimmermannLaband syndrome

Retrieved from "" Nutrient Deficiency: Hair, Skin, and Nails | Sanesco Health

We have all heard beauty is just skin deep, but nothing could be further from the truth. Our skin is a reflection of our health. You have seen the radiant beautiful skin of a healthy infant or a child. The eyes sparkle and the skin glows.

You know the pale face of someone ill, the wrinkles and the dry skin of someone who smokes, or has a body filled with toxins and poor nutrition. You have seen the face of someone who is stressed, tired or depressed.

Are you experiencing:

  • hair loss
  • chipped nails
  • dark circles under your eyes
  • acne
  • psoriasis?

Do you notice bumps on the back of your upper arms, loss of hair on your arms or rosacea? If so, it is likely you have a nutrient deficiency.

Hair Loss

A normal cycle of hair growth is two to three years and it grows about ? inch per month. About 90% of the hair is growing, while 10% is resting and after about two or three months, the resting hair falls out.

Women experiencing hair loss likely have low stomach acid naturally or are using antacids. Incomplete protein digestion with low stomach acid levels results in decreased amino acids and essential minerals. Supplementation with hydrochloric acid and pepsin capsules can correct the low stomach acid for better digestion. People with low stomach acid may experience burping or bloating after eating.

If you have noticed much less hair on your arms and legs than you once did, have your DHEA blood level checked. Thinning hair can be due to low DHEA, low thyroid, medications, illness, lack of B vitamins, hormonal imbalance or gluten sensitivity.

Dry Skin

Do you have dry skin and hair, eczema or psoriasis? This could be due to low vitamin E. It is important to also eat an adequate amount of excellent quality fish oil, omega-3 and omega-6, olive and avocado oil, nuts and seeds for your brain, body and beauty.

If your hair is painful to brush, you probably need more vitamin D. Based on your blood levels of vitamin D, the amount of vitamin D you need can be determined. Do you have small, red, dilated veins on your nose or cheeks? This might be due to low stomach acid, too much alcohol or both!

Dark circles under the eyes may be from a lack of sleep but often are a sign of hidden IgG food allergies.

Nutrient Deficiency: More than Skin Deep

People today go to extreme lengths to cover up tired, dull, lifeless skin, nails and hair, while not understanding that outward appearance of skin wrinkles, brittle nails and dry hair are more than superficial cosmetic issues. They are indicators of nutrient deficiencies and aging of connective tissue throughout the body. Connective tissue provides support to the hair, skin, and nails.

Some people try to turn back their odometers. Not me; I want people to know why I look this way. I have traveled a long way, and some of the roads werent paved, Will Rogers once said. While appreciative of Rogers sentiments, most people want fewer wrinkles. Wrinkles and photo-aging may be from age, sun, smoking, nutrient deficiencies, low stomach acid or toxic skin care products.

The only way we get healthy, stay well and look good is through the air we breathe, the water we drink and the food we eat.

So, What Can We Do?

In a 2014 clinical trial, soluble bioavailable keratin improved hair appearance by 47.1%, increased hair follicle growth by 9.2% and improved nail hardness by 50%. Oral supplementation with certain high-quality peptides not only increases skin elasticity but improves wrinkles! Specific natural bioavailable lipids have shown critical importance in preserving skins youthful appearance and texture, while also helping to prevent skin diseases. Ensuring sex hormone balance is also useful, as estrogen, in particular, is supportive of skin hydration and health. This becomes more critical as we add years to our lives and more life to our years.

The bottom line is to find out how to look and feel your best, and that means ! You deserve it.

Clinical Contributor

Sharon Norling, MD, MBA

Sharon Norling, MD, MBA

Dr. Sharon Norling is a nationally known and highly respected medical doctor specializing in integrative medicine and practicing advanced functional medicine in Hendersonville, NC. Dr. Norling graduated from Case Western Reserve School of Medicine and has trained at USC and UCLA. She received her MBA from St. Thomas University.

Dr. Norlings expertise is based on her years of clinical experiences, former Assistant Professor at the University of Minnesota Medical School, and her research. She is national board-certified in OB/GYN, Integrative Medicine and Medical Acupuncture. Dr. Norling combines a credible and responsible academic knowledge with years of experience and a caring nature.

Recognized for her expertise, she has testified before the White House Commission on Complementary Alternative Medicine Policy. She has served in multiple leadership roles as Medical Director and senior management in two large healthcare organizations.During her years in health care she has been nurse, medical doctor, hospital administrator, advocate and a dismissed and misdiagnosed patient.

Her passion is finding the root cause of illnesses instead of just using a pharmaceutical drug to treat the tip of the iceberg. Hormonal and neurotransmitter balancing is one of her specialties.

Dr. Norling is an international speaker and the author of Your Doctor is Wrong. As a presenter, she is engaging, articulate, humorous, and insightful, making learning a dynamic professional and personal growth experience. Whether you have heard her on the radio, seen her on TV or sharing the stage with celebrities, Dr. Norling is the expert.

Dr. Norling is a medical authority, a visionary and an extraordinary leader who provides real solutions for patients who have been dismissed or misdiagnosed.

Sharon Norling, MD, MBA

Latest posts by Sharon Norling, MD, MBA (see all)

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