Do toenails grow back after fungus

14.08.2019
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Toenails That Grow Upward: Causes and Home Treatments

Your nails are made from the same protein that makes up your hair: keratin. Nails grow from a process called keratinization: cells multiplying in the base of each nail and then layering on top of each other and hardening.

How strong, thick, and fast your nails grow is hereditary. Unusual nail growth, such as toenails growing upward, could be hereditary as well.

Nail structure

Each toenail and fingernail has six structures:

The nail matrix is the root of the nail. It grows out of a small pocket under your skin. The matrix is always making new cells that force the old ones to bunch up and get pushed through the skin. By the time you can see the nail, the cells there are dead.The nail plate is the visible part of the nail.The nail bed is under the nail plate.The lunula is part of the nail matrix. Its the small, white crescent shape that you can sometimes see under your skin at the base of the nail plate.The nail folds are the skin grooves that hold the nail plate in place.The cuticle is the thin tissue over the base of the nail plate where it grows out of your finger.

Although nails will typically curl under if they grow long, a toenail that grows upward isnt uncommon. This is called a vertical nail.

Toenails may curl upward for a number of reasons:

A toenail that grows upward could also have more complex medical explanations, such as:

Onychogryphosis

Onychogryphosis is a thickening of the nails due to injury or infection. It mostly affects the toes specifically the big toes. This condition is also known as rams horn nail and claw nail because it causes the nails to curve and resemble the shape of a rams horn or claw.

Onychogryphosis. When nails suffer trauma or infection, they can become thickened and deformed.

Nail-patella syndrome

Nail patella syndrome (NPS) is a genetic disorder that occurs in 1 in 50,000 people. Almost all people with NPS have nail abnormalities, and the fingernails are more likely to be affected than the toenails. People with NPS often have skeletal abnormalities involving the knees, elbows, and hips, and are prone to develop kidney disease.

Koilonychia

This condition is characterized by thin and fragile nails that look concave or scooped out, similar to a spoon. Koilonychia typically affects fingernails. It can be hereditary or a sign of iron deficiency anemia, malnutrition, celiac disease, heart disease, hypothyroidism, or the liver condition hemochromatosis, in which your body absorbs too much iron from the food you eat.

If you feel that you might have onychogryphosis, NPS, or koilonychia, schedule an appointment with your doctor.

Whether or not youre under a doctors supervision, its important to maintain your toenails. Upward-growing toenails tend to rip more often, exposing the area to infection, so careful hygiene is vital.

The most important thing you can do is trim your toenails using a strong, sharp nail clipper.

Cut each toenail to the point where it begins to curve upward. Cut the nail straight across without cutting the edges inward. Its also important to leave the nail a little long to prevent it from growing inward. The goal is to have an even nail.

Try to avoid cutting nails when they are wet. Dry nails are less prone to cracking.

Here are some other tips for maintaining good foot and toenail hygiene:

  • Inspect your toenails at a minimum of once per week.
  • Use a nail cleaner to carefully remove any dirt under your nails.
  • Wash your feet in warm water and dry them thoroughly.
  • Moisturize your feet with a foot cream after washing them. Rub the cream over your nails and cuticles as well.
  • Ensure that your nails are smooth by filing them with an emery board. Among other benefits, this prevents them from catching on socks.
  • Wear thick socks to cushion against the friction between your toenails and your shoe. Natural fiber socks absorb sweat better than synthetic ones, allowing your feet to breathe.
  • Buy shoes that fit properly and have plenty of room for air movement.
  • Avoid harsh chemicals such as strong soaps and detergents.
  • In public places like gyms and swimming pools, dont share towels, always dry yourself thoroughly, and never go barefoot. Always wear flip-flops, slides, or other appropriate footwear.

Its possible to have toenails (and even fingernails) that grow upward. To prevent this issue from arising or getting worse, keep your feet clean and dry, and trim your nails frequently.

If your nails grow upward, you have depressed nail beds, or you notice any other issues, make an appointment to see your doctor.


do toenails grow back after fungus
How to Treat Toenail Fungus, According to a Podiatrist

What is toenail fungus?

Toenail fungus (onychomycosis) is caused by a group of fungi known as dermophytes. This group thrives on skin and on keratin, the main component of hair and nails. The fungus gets under the nail and begins to grow, damaging the nail so it discolors, becoming white, brown, or yellow. Eventually, the nail might thicken, harden, become brittle, and even fall off.

According to the American Podiatrist Medical Association, nail fungus is easy to pick up from showers, locker rooms,and swimming pools because fungi thrive in the damp, humid conditions. People with underlying health conditions like diabetes, circulatory issues, or immune-deficiency conditions are especially vulnerable.

This condition can be very difficult to cure. Toenail fungus treatment often lasts for several weeks or months, but if you want to know how to get rid of toenail fungus, podiatrists have a clear strategy.

Take a full medical history

The first step is to take a history of the problem, says podiatristMark Hinkes, DPM, CEO of HappyFeet LLC. In other words, I want to know how long have you had this and what previous treatment youve had. A podiatrist needs to understand the extent of the problem and any other medical factors which may influence their choice of toenail fungus treatment.

A full medical history is also important because the first line of defense is usually oral medication, but this treatment can have side effects for people with underlying health issues. Make sure you reveal everythinghere are 14 things to never lie to your doctor about.

Physical exam

Once hes got a medical history, Dr. Hinkes moves on to a physical exam. A physical exam determines the quality, he explains. What does it look like? Is it thick? Does it smell? What color is it? Is it flaky? Is it on the tip of the nail? Is it at the base of the nail? And what color is it? Is it white? Is it superficial? Is it yellow, green black?Learn more about what your nail color says about your health.

lab technician podiatrist foot feet doctor african hair net scrubs maskDiego Cervo/Shutterstock

Lab analysis

We really cannot make a diagnosis by looking at the toenail, Dr. Hinkes says. Its difficult to know whether its an infection of fungus, mold, or yeast. You must harvest a sample of the nail and send it to pathology.

Thats the only way to ascertain exactly what the problem is so the podiatrist can prescribe the best course of action for toenail fungus treatment. Once the exact cause of the problem is identified, the podiatrist can then decide how to get rid of toenail fungus in the patient.

Oral treatments

Oral anti-fungal treatments such as Lamisil (terbinafine), Diflucan (fluconazole) or Sporanox (itraconazole) are effective alternatives and take around three months to work. However, they can have unpleasant side effects, including stomach upset, dizziness, skin problems, and liver damage leading to jaundice. This is why taking a full medical history is essential. Heres some advice from doctors and nurses on coming clean.

The medications we use to treat this are expensive and they are not benign, cautions Dr. Hinkes. Lamisil is so powerful it stays in your body six months after you stop using it, and thats one of the reasons why it works so well. So when we use these medicines, we have to be conscious that we may be affecting a persons liver, because the liver is the organ that helps to detoxify the body and excretes that medicine.

People with liver problems or raised liver function cant tolerate oral medication, and some patients dont respond to oral medication, so topical treatments are an alternative.

toenail fungus podiatrist rubber gloves foot feet caucasian doctorOkrasyuk/Shutterstock

Topical treatments

Topical treatments are applied directly to the infected nailbut may take a long time to work. For example, the relatively new toenail fungus treatment Kerydin can take up to 12 months to clear the condition. But theyre much more suitable for those with liver problems or who havent responded to oral treatments.

Not every medicine works great for every person, Dr. Hinkes says. If someone was treated with the oral medicine and it didnt have a success, theres an alternative. We have good topical medicines that work great.

Laser treatment

Laser treatment for this condition is a relatively new approach but is offered by many podiatrists as its non-invasive and works quite quickly. The laser can attack the fungus beneath the nail, killing it off without damaging the nail itself.

Many podiatrists now consider this an effective treatment, but because its new, theres not enough concrete data to compare with other treatments. Dr. Hinkes raises another concern: A clinical cure and a mycological cure are two different things, he says. With the clinical cure, you look at the nail and it looks fine. Its pink and shiny and smooth and it looks great. But if you sample the nail, you might find that theres mold or fungus there, so it does not have what we call a mycological curemycology is the study of fungi. In other words, your nail mightlookgood, but there could still be fungus, yeast, or mold after the treatment, making it more likely that the infection will return.Make sure you know the10 subtle signs of disease that your feet can reveal.

Surgical treatments

Modern treatments made surgery a last resort. Before we had these 21st-century medications, we didnt have agood choice in how to deal with toenail fungus, says Dr. Hinkes. Oftentimes, patients would come in, and out of frustration and lack of any real significant clinical cure with medication, they would ask for their nails to be permanently removed.

Sometimes the whole nail can be removed and a healthy nail can grow in its place. But if the infection has gotten into the nail matrix, where the new nail is formed, the new nail will also be infected. In cases like this, it may be necessary to remove the matrix. This can be done with chemicals such as phenol or sodium hydroxide.

Application of those chemicals would destroy the matrix cells, explains Dr. Hinkes. After surgery, the toenail wont grow back. The other method, he adds, which is also very frequently used, is to surgically, sharply, cut out the matrix cells. And when that happens, you get a couple of stitches to the base of the area and thats the end of it.

essential oils herbs glass bottles table woodMadeleine Steinbach/Shutterstock

Home remedies

Because the treatment for this condition doesnt always work and can cause side effects, many people look to home remedies as a first step when trying to figure out how to get rid of toenail fungus.

Essential oils and ozonized oils

Several essential oils have been shown to be an effective toenail fungus treatment.

Research by our group and others has shown that essential oils may be cheap, efficient alternatives that have minimal side effects, Professor Ligia Salgueiro and Professor Eugenia Pinto (University of Coimbra, Portugal) say in anews release. Lavender oil shows wide-spectrum anti-fungal activity and is highly potent.

Tea tree oil also has anti-fungal and antiseptic properties. The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health cites some small-scale clinical studies suggesting that tea tree oil might be an effective home remedy. Plus, these are the best essential odors for combating foot odor.

Oils such as olive oil and sunflower oil contain ozone gas. A 2011 study published in the Brazilian Journal of Microbiologyshowed that small doses of this kind of ozone, applied over a short period, can eliminate fungus. A different study, conducted at the National Center for Scientific Research, Cuba, found that sunflower oil was more effective than the prescription drug Xolegel (ketoconazole).

Plant extracts

Olive leaf extract contains oleuropein, which is known to have anti-fungal properties. You can apply olive leaf extract as a topical treatment or take it in the form of capsules. A review published inThe Pharma Journal showed that the supplement was more effective than a topical treatment.

Snakeroot extract comes from a plant in the sunflower family. A 2008 study conducted by the Centro de Investigacion Biomedica del Sur and published in Planta Med, found that applying the extract to the affected nail over three months was more effective than treatment with the prescription anti-fungal Penlac (ciclopirox).

Nail polish

In a recent study published in the Journal of Industrial & Engineering Chemical Research, researchers added silver nanoparticles to store-bought clear nail polish. They found that it was effective at tackling toenail fungus.If foot fungus is your problem, try thesenatural home remedies for athletes foot.

Weird and wacky

Most people have heard of using Vicks VapoRub for a cold, but the camphor and eucalyptus oil in the rub are also effective as a toenail fungus treatment. A 2011 study published in the Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine showed that applying Vicks VapoRub regularly could be effective in getting rid of nail fungus.

Another popular home toenail fungus treatment is to use Listerine mouthwash on its own or mixed with an equal amount of white vinegar.

The podiatrists take on home remedies

While home remedies are unlikely to cause any harm in themselves, Dr. Hinkes urges caution when relying on them when looking for how to get rid of toenail fungus.

Resorting to folk remedies can be dangerous because it could keep the patient from getting a legitimate diagnosis and treatment, he says. Now in some people, this could be a critical thing, because it can be contagiousyou can pass it to other people and you can pass it to other parts of your body. So its really not something you want to fool with.

Dr. Hinkes advice is clear: Visit a foot care specialist. This could be a podiatrist, but foot care nurses also offer an excellent and affordable service as an alternative. And if neither of those is available, try a dermatologist.

Left untreated, this condition wont go away on its own and can cause serious pain, deformity, and even lead to further complications. Podiatrists recommend seeking expert helpyoure better safe than sorry. If youre desperate, though, try these DIY foot and toenail fungus treatments.



10 Remedies to Fight Toenail Fungus at Home | Top 10 Home Remedies

Toenail fungus, also known as onychomycosis, is perhaps one of the most common nail disorders. It is a fungal infection that penetrates through chinks in your toenail, cuts in the surrounding skin, or the separation between the nail and the toe, and affects the material below the toenail.

The fungus tends to thrive in certain conditions, such as abnormal body pH, a weakened immune system, continuous exposure to a moist environment including sweaty shoes and socks, poor hygiene, and diabetes.(1)

10 remedies to fight toenail fungus at home

10 remedies to fight toenail fungus at home

As embarrassing as this condition may be, simply camouflaging your unsightly toenail, such as painting your nails, without tending to it properly would do you more harm than good. If the infection goes untreated long enough, it could spread to the adjoining skin, to the other toenails, and even perhaps to your fingernails.(2)

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Causes of Toenail Fungus

  • Onychomycosis stems from a number of fungal pathogens, primarily a certain group of fungi known as dermatophytes. Other relatively less common carriers of this infection are yeast and mold.(3)
  • Your susceptibility to this type of infection increases with age as older people tend to have increasingly brittle and dry nails that may allow the fungus to slip in through the cracks.
  • Direct skin-to-skin contact with people grappling with fungal infections like athletes foot or ringworm on their hands can transmit the fungus onto you, paving the way for a toenail infection.
  • A warm, moist environment such as a pool deck or a locker room provide the ideal breeding grounds for these infection-causing fungi. Therefore, people who walk barefoot in such areas tend to pick up this infection quite easily.
  • Another common way of catching a fungal nail infection is by sharing an infected nail clipper or towel.
  • Moreover, people who are prone to having moisture-ridden nails or often wear sweaty socks and shoes are increasingly predisposed to getting a fungal nail infection all by themselves.

Risk Factors Associated with Toenail Fungus

Certain health conditions and lifestyle factors can make you increasingly vulnerable to developing nail fungus:(2)(3)

Health: You have a greater chance of contracting a fungal nail infection if you suffer from one or more of the following issues:

  • Other fungal skin infections, such as athletes foot or ringworm
  • Diabetes
  • Previous affliction with a nail infection
  • Nail injury or recent nail surgery
  • A family history of nail infections
  • Poor blood circulation
  • Cancer and receiving chemotherapy
  • Psoriasis
  • Have had an organ transplant
  • Comprised immunity due to a disease such as human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV)

Lifestyle: Fungal nail infection is more prevalent among people who:

  • Frequently have damp feet or hands throughout the day
  • Smoke
  • Cracked nails
  • Spend a lot of time in the water
  • Are prone to walking barefoot in hot, humid places, such as a pool, public shower, or locker room.
  • Have feet that perspire a lot and wear tight-fitting, closed-toe shoes that dont let the feet breathe.

Symptoms of Toenail Fungus

Symptoms of toenail fungal infection may include:

  • Thickened or crumbled nail
  • Inflammation
  • Whitish to yellow-brown discoloration
  • Increasingly brittle, crumbly, or ragged nail
  • Nail that appears warped or distorted in shape
  • Nail that appears dull without any luster
  • Dark color, caused by the accumulation of debris under your nail
  • Slightly foul odor in the affected area

Complications Regarding Toenail Fungus

Toenail fungal infections are typically painless or at least start off that way. But without proper self-care and treatment, the condition can spiral into a more severe case of nail fungus, which can be painful and may cause irretrievable damage to your nails.

Moreover, the toenail infection can sprout other serious infections that can spread beyond your feet, particularly if you have a suppressed immune system due to certain medications, diabetes, or other conditions.

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Because people with diabetes are already predisposed to reduced blood circulation and nerve supply in their feet, their odds for catching toenail infections as well as bacterial skin infection (cellulitis) are quite high.(4)

Thus, it is imperative for people with diabetes to seek professional medical help for any seemingly minor foot injury including a nail fungal infection to avoid any future complications.

Prevention of Toenail Fungus

Adopting a few preventive measures can mitigate your chances of getting infected by nail fungus or reinfections as well as athletes foot (which can lead to nail fungus):

  • Keep your hands and feet clean by washing them regularly. Be especially mindful of avoiding contact with an infected nail, and in case you do, wash your hands thoroughly. Moisturize your nails after washing.
  • Keep your nails properly trimmed, file the rough edges to make them smooth, and file down thickened areas. Make a habit of disinfecting your nail clippers thereafter.
  • Wear socks that absorb perspiration or change your socks throughout the day.
  • Wear shoes made of materials that breathe.
  • Let go of any old shoes or treat them with disinfectants or antifungal powders. Alternatively, consider using a medicated shoe spray after every use.
  • Either carry your own manicure tools when visiting a nail salon or opt for a salon that uses sterilized tools for each customer.
  • Abstain from using nail polish and artificial nails.
  • Wearing shower footwear in hotels, gyms, public pools, and showers is essential to prevent reinfection.

When to See a Doctor

Despite optimum self-care, if the condition continues to persist or worsen such that the nail becomes increasingly discolored, thickened or deformed, and painful or starts spreading further, consult your doctor or podiatrist.

People with diabetes, on the other hand, must seek medical assistance as soon as they suspect a fungal infection taking shape in their toenail.

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If left untreated, toenail fungus can cause cracking, splitting, and even complete loss of the toenail. The infection can also spread to the nails of the hand. Fortunately, toenail fungus is curable and can be treated inexpensively. Various natural home remedies can cure the infection.

toenail fungus

toenail fungus

Here are 10 remedies to fight toenail fungus at home.

1. Ozonated Oil

ozonated oil to fight toenail fungus at home

ozonated oil to fight toenail fungus at home

The much-touted ability of ozonated oils, such as olive oil or sunflower oil, to render fungus, yeast, and bacteria inactive has been common knowledge for centuries. These oils are produced by reacting ozone (O3) with oil, and they contain compounds with significant medicinal effects that are responsible for their success against toenail fungus.(5)(6)

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While all ozonated oils are injected with ozone gas and are effective against this condition, sunflower oil is known to yield the best results.

Rub a small amount of this oil onto your toes two times a day to stop the toenail fungus in its tracks.

2. Tea Tree Oil

tea tree oil to get rid of toenail fungus

tea tree oil to get rid of toenail fungus

Tea tree oil (Melaleuca) has antiseptic and antifungal properties that help in the treatment of toenail fungus.(7) This oil is also used to treat other kinds of skin infections.

Mix a few drops of tea tree oil in one teaspoon of olive oil or coconut oil.Use a cotton ball to apply the mixture on to the affected toenail.Leave it on for 10 minutes, and then use a toothbrush to gently scrub the affected nail.Repeat this twice or thrice daily until you are satisfied with the results.

3. Baking Soda

baking soda to treat toenail fungus

baking soda to treat toenail fungus

Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) is a readily available staple in most kitchens that can also be used to cure toenail fungus.(8) Besides, it also works well to neutralize the foul odor emanating from the infected nail.

Add 1/2 cup of baking soda, 1/4 cup of 3% hydrogen peroxide, and 1/2 cup of Epsom salt to 4 cups of hot water. Mix the ingredients thoroughly, and then add 1/4 cup of white vinegar to it.Soak the infected toenail in this solution for about 10 minutes.Wash your foot with clean water and dry it thoroughly.Repeat the process twice daily for several weeks.

4. White Vinegar

white vinegar for toenail fungus

white vinegar for toenail fungus

White vinegar is one of the best ingredients in treating toenail fungus because it fights the infection and helps restore the skins pH balance.

Make a solution by mixing 1 part of white vinegar with 2 parts of warm water.Soak the infected toenail in this solution for 10 to 15 minutes.Rinse it off and rid the affected area of any remnant moisture by thoroughly drying it.Repeat twice daily until the fungus is gone.

Note: If your skin becomes irritated, add more water to the solution and repeat the process every other day instead of daily.

5. Oil of Oregano

Oil of oregano to fight toenail fungus at home

Oil of oregano to fight toenail fungus at home

Oil of oregano (Origanum) has antiseptic, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antiviral, analgesic, and antifungal properties.(9)

Mix two drops of oil of oregano in 1 teaspoon of olive oil.Apply this mixture on the affected nail.Leave it on for at least 30 minutes.Then, rinse it off and dry your toes thoroughly.Repeat once or twice daily for three weeks to see positive results.

6. Vicks VapoRub

Vicks vaporub to fight toenail fungus at home

Vicks vaporub to fight toenail fungus at home

A study published in the Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine demonstrates the effectiveness of Vicks VapoRub in the treatment of toenail fungus.(10) The ointment is comprised of a variety of ingredients that possess antifungal activity.

Use a cotton swab to apply a small amount of Vicks VapoRub ointment to the infected toenail daily.

7. Garlic

garlic for toenail fungus

garlic for toenail fungus

Garlic contains compounds such as allicin and ajoene that have antifungal properties that can help treat toenail fungus.(11)

Mix garlic oil with an equal amount of white vinegar.Apply this mixture on and around the infected toenail and cover the toe with a bandage thereafter.Leave it on for a few hours before removing the bandage.Repeat daily until the infection clears. (If garlic oil is not available, you can whip up your own by frying two crushed garlic cloves in 2 tablespoons of olive oil and then straining the oil.)You can also eat one or two crushed garlic cloves

8. Lemon Juice

lemon juice to fight toenail fungus at home

lemon juice to fight toenail fungus at home

Lemon juice has both antiseptic and antifungal properties.(12) The citric acid present in lemon juice helps stop the toenail fungus from spreading.

  • Apply fresh lemon juice on the infected toenail. Leave it on for about 30 minutes before rinsing it off with warm water.
  • Another option is to mix equal amounts of lemon juice and olive oil and use this mixture to massage the infected area. Leave it on for a few hours before rinsing it off. Dry your toes thoroughly. The olive oil helps make your skin softer, while the lemon juice helps keep the fungal infections in check.

Use either of these remedies a few times daily for one month or longer until positive results begin to show.

9. Lavender Oil

Lavender oil to fight toenail fungus at home

Lavender oil to fight toenail fungus at home

Lavender oil has several volatile compounds and antiseptic properties that can fight any kind of infection and prevent skin irritation.(13)

Mix five drops each of lavender oil and tea tree oil.Use a cotton ball to apply this solution under the top edge of the affected toenail and the surrounding areas.Leave it on for at least 10 minutes, rinse it off, and dry your toes thoroughly thereafter.Repeat two or three times a day.

10. Orange Oil

Orange oil to fight toenail fungus at home

Orange oil to fight toenail fungus at home

Orange oil contains the chemical limonene that has antifungal properties and can be used to treat toenails infected with fungus.(14) Orange oil can cause allergic reactions and can have various side effects, so it is important to test a small amount of orange oil on a spot of skin prior to using this remedy.

Use a dropper to apply pure orange oil between your toes and on and under your toenails. If you have sensitive skin, then dilute the essential oil with an equal amount of carrier oil, such as grape seed oil.Let it sit for at least 30 minutes.Repeat two or three times daily until you see an improvement.

The effectiveness of these natural remedies depends on proper use and application. Give these remedies time of at least one or two months to engender positive results. Adhering to these self-care methods with patience and persistence will see you through this discomforting toenail infection and prevent further complications.

Additional Tips

  • You can also use snakeroot extract,(14) olive leaf extract,(15) or Listerine to treat toenail fungus.
  • Incorporate probiotic-rich yogurt into your diet to combat the fungal infection from within.
  • Maintain adequate protein intake to support nail regrowth.
  • Make sure you have sufficient iron in your diet to prevent brittle nails.
  • Up your intake of essential fatty acids as well as foods rich in calcium and vitamin D, such as low-fat dairy products.

Resources

Toenail Fungus . American Podiatric Medical Association. https://www.apma.org/Patients/FootHealth.cfm?ItemNumber=1523.Ghannoum M, Isham N. Fungal Nail Infections (Onychomycosis): A Never-Ending Story? PLoS Pathogens. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4047123/. Published June 5, 2015.Muth CC. Fungal Nail Infection. JAMA. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2600469. Published February 7, 2017.Roujeau JC, Sigurgeirsson B, Korting HC, Kerl H, Paul C. Chronic dermatomycoses of the foot as risk factors for acute bacterial cellulitis of the leg: a case-control study. Dermatology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15539893. Published 2004.Menendez S, Falcon L, Maqueira Y. Therapeutic efficacy of topical OLEOZON in patients suffering from onychomycosis. Mycoses. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1439-0507.2010.01898.x. Published May 17, 2010.Heateh P, Scher RK, Lipner S. Over-the-counter and Natural Remedies for Onychomycosis: Do They Really Work? Onychomycosis Treatments. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311734077. Published November 2016.Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. Antifungal activity of the components of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. Journal of Applied Microbiology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12969301. Published 2003.Letscher-Bru V, Obszynski CM, Samson M, Sabou M, Waller J, Candolfi E. Antifungal Activity of Sodium Bicarbonate Against Fungal Agents Causing Superficial Infections. Mycopathologia. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11046-012-9583-2. Published February 2013.Manohar V, Ingram C, Preuss HG. Anti-fungal activities of Origanum oil against Candida albicans. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227136968. Published January 2001.Derby R, Rohal P, Jackson C, Beutler A. Novel Treatment of Onychomycosis using Over-the-Counter Mentholated Ointment: A Clinical Case Series. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. http://www.jabfm.org/content/24/1/69.full. Published 2011.Suleiman EA, Abdallah WB. In vitro Activity of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Some Pathogenic Fungi. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/5330. Published January 15, 2014.Kadi SE-. EFFECT OF SOME ORGANIC ACIDS ON SOME FUNGAL GROWTH AND THEIR TOXINS PRODUCTION. International Journal of Advances in Biology. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273061896. Published February 2015.Lavender oil has a potent antifungal effect. Society for General Microbiology. https://phys.org/news/2011-02-lavender-oil-potent-antifungal-effect.html. Published February 15, 2011.Unal MU, ucan F, sener A. Research on antifungal and inhibitory effects of DL-limonene on some yeasts. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/278141756. Published January 2012.Parashar B, Yadav V, Maurya B. Natural Therapy of Fungal Nail Disease: Review. The Pharma Innovation Journal. http://www.thepharmajournal.com/vol1Issue4/5.html. Published 2012.

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